Growing Almonds - Fertilizer Management of Almonds Orchard

Growing Almonds – Fertilizer Management of Almonds Orchard

The US is the largest producer of almonds, followed by Spain and Italy and 18 other countries located in the Middle East, Europe, Asia, South America and Oceania.

The production cycle lasts between 220 and 240 days.


Almonds grow in temperate and subtropical regions and requires low to medium cold units. Most varieties require 400-600 cold units.
The temperature range for growth is 10 to 45 ° C with
optimum 25 ° C.

There are short day and long day cultivars.

Almonds prefer sunny days for good growth and fruiting.


Dormancy (November through February in Northern hemisphere)

Bloom (late February and early March)

Growth and maturation (March to June)

Hull Split (July and early August)

Harvest (mid-August through October)

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Avoid water stress during the early stages of the season and kernel filling. Deficit irrigation strategy can be implemented 2 months prior to harvest. It can improve hull split and will not affect yield significantly (deficit irrigation strategy).

Sever stress during post-harvest will significantly harm next season’s yield.


Prefers deep, medium-textured soils with pH of 7.0 to 8.5. It is resistant to calcareous soils, but very sensitive to root suffocation by waterlogging and needs well-drained soils.


Almonds have a low tolerance to salinity and yield will decrease at soil ECe greater than 1.6 ds/m.

EC (ds/m) 1.5 2 2.8 4.1 6.8
% reduction in yield 0 10 25 50 100


90% of the annual demand of nitrogen occurs between fruit-set and hull split.

Therefore, most of the nitrogen should be applied prior to kernel fill and before hull split, and the rest in the post-harvest.

Potassium uptake (as K2O0) is higher than the nitrogen uptake. 70% of the potassium accumulation occurs by kernel fill.

Leaf sampling is helpful to determine the fertilization program. Sample for nitrogen in April and for P,K and micronutrients in mid-July (northern hemisphere).


A screen shot taken from SMART! Fertilizer Management software, the software will interpret your test results within minutes, and recommend you with the best fertilizer plan for your specific crop needs.